As already been said, Civilization flourish with the need of demand and necessities. So the saying goes true for one of the most ancient civilization as well. Mesopotamian Civilization is a river valley civilization which flourished side by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates back in 6000 B.C. This civilization is the chief standard for the rest of the civilization which flourished along with it or after it. It had provided a backbone to the coming generations with its surprising development and growth in the field of art, living, society, politics, law and order as well as literature and science. They were the first ever found civilizations on the earth which gave measurements of month, year and time. Here are the most astonishing facts about them and are as followed:
10.) Origin and Briefing
Mesopotamia is the word which exactly means “Land between two rivers”. This civilization was given the name because of the two rivers “Tigris and Euphrates” under which the civilization flourished and developed before Christ in 6000. These rivers were the prime cause of their development in measurements, agriculture, irrigation and rest of the basic standards of life.
9.) Division of Civilization
In fact, this is the only civilization in the world, which is stated to be divided in to three major parts namely, Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians. The three major races developed while in the period and they prospered along with the time and gave the world they actually had gained. Sumerians were the first to develop back in around 2800 B.C. After that Sumerians fallen in to hands of Sumerakkadian race under the ruler Sargone who had invaded the Sumer and captured it in 2770 B.C. Babylon and Assyria flourished parallel with each other at the same time with their own distinctive natures of life style and society.
The society system of Mesopotamians were divided primarily in to three parts as “High class, Middle class and third Class”. The high class who were the valuables of the society and had wealth. It comprised of priests, high authorities and wealthy persons. The middle class constituted the traders and those families who had not much power in the society but living their own standards. The third class also called as slave class because their condition was the worst and they were the least respected class of the society. They generally worked under lords or landlords. They had no right to speak.
7.) Hammurabi and His Code
Mesopotamians had no fixed ruling system until Hammurabi. Hammurabi was the 6th ruler of Babylonian between the time 2123 B.C. to 2081 B.C. and he was the first to introduce and formulate a written law and code of rules for crimes, injustice and everything. In fact, he is the base for all the written laws all over the world. The best thing which he did was the inscriptions of all those codes which he had formulated for society on a high pillar visible to all. He had given 282 instructions regarding law and rules.
6.) Art – Cuneiform
Mesopotamians were talented as well in the field of art and writing system. They developed the first ever writing system called as “Cuneiform”. Cuneiform is the art of writing in which a chisel is used to inscribe the things which they wanted to in script on soils and layered hard soil which can be kept forever. This is a kind of art which was inherited to all of the Mesopotamians. The knowledge of this art came in light after the excavations in those regions.
It is the first ever known civilizational epic writings which contained the history of great ruler Gilgamesh. It was so called that Gilgamesh was the ruler who defied the orders of Gods and then Gods sent Enikad a animal human to kill Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh was so clever that he sent harlots to allure that creature and Enikad became the most beloved friend of Gilgamesh. This uncommon bond made the gods go furious and they sent furthermore to kill them but they both fought gallantly and bravely against them but at last Enikad was killed. Gilgamesh was now sad over the death of Enikad so he tried to re-live Enikad with some ancient knowledge of form but it was then all blurred in the epic content and nobody ever found the rest.
The Mesopotamians were accurate and good at sciences as well. They were the first to formulate everything on the basis of division of 60. They first divided hour in to 60 minutes and complete angle in to 360 form and then days in to 24 hours and year in to 360+5 added days. They formulated time for day and night. Their basis of each and every calculation was based on moon. It is reported to be found from the sources that they also studied planets and solar system as well. They had a deep knowledge of Astrology and revolution of planets.
The Mesopotamians were highly devotee of gods not because of they respected the gods but out of fear that being the supreme they can hurt them. Out of fear they worshipped lords and gods. The major gods of Sumerians and all Mesopotamians included An (Sky-god), Anhil (Earth-god) and Hiy (Water God) and Esther (the goddess of fertility). There were many other gods but of them these were the most worshipped and respected. The work of worship was handed over to the priests of high class and they believed in offerings to gods as well. They worshipped gods for the material happiness that gods can give them.
Ziggurats in fact is the most sacred structures found in the Mesopotamians because of the belief. They made the structures for the rest place of gods in the city side being the highest structure of the area and place. Ziggurat is the tapering structure like fort where the gods’ statues were kept for worship. This ziggurat is the basis of formations of many forts, pillars and most importantly, Muslims followed the basic structures of Ziggurats to build their own Mosques and Worship places.
Assyrians were the last flourishing race of Mesopotamia. In fact they were the most brutal race ever developed in those regions. They were good in iron-work and they tamed horses and were the first to use chariots. They were highly well trained soldiers and army people whose society was more specifically oriented as military formation. Out of such tradition, their race could not last for more time and they ended themselves fighting amongst each other and from foreign invasions. This brought the end to the civilizations and ultimately a great civilization was put to an end or simply one can see the dusk of recently dawned sun.